The Nobel Peace Prize is a prestigious international award awarded to scientists and thinkers with the most outstanding achievements in specific fields. It was invented by the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel in 1895 AD, as Nobel allocated most of his fortune to be prizes given to scientists who provide a benefit to humanity. The award is a gold medal, a sum of money, and a certificate.
The ceremonies for awarding prizes are linked to the anniversary of Nobel’s death and are held every year. The awards began for the first time on the fifth anniversary of the death of the Nobel inventor, on the 10th of the 12th of the year 1901 AD.
This award is granted to scientists, inventors and innovators in 5 fields: physics, chemistry, medicine or physiology, literature, and peace. The field of economics was added to make the number of fields 6 in 1968, the Bank of Sweden added this field. Prior to his death, Nobel had recommended the adoption of 4 institutions to award prizes, 3 of which should be Swedish and the other Norwegian.
The Nobel Foundation was established to administer the four institutions, and accordingly the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm awarded prizes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and economics, and the Karolinska Institutet awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology, and the Swedish Academy awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature The Norwegian Nobel Committee in Oslo awards the Nobel Peace Prize.
Women did not miss the dazzling presence at the Nobel Prize. Below we show you the 10 most famous women who won the Nobel Peace Prize.
Eleanor Ostrom: Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Economics
Eleanor Ostrom (7 August 1933 - 12 June 2012); She is the first and only woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences; Where she won the award in 2009, jointly with the American economist; Oliver Williamson, as a result of their research in economic analysis, participatory management and environmental economics.
The American-born political economist received a doctorate in political science from the University of California in 1954, and was awarded an honorary doctorate from the same university in 1965. She has worked on field studies in small local communities, where they dealt with the management of these communities for shared natural resources; She is a pastoral, hunting, and forestry development officer, and has served as a member of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States of America, as well as a professor of political science at Indiana University at Bloomington, and director of the Center for the Study of Institutional Diversity at the University of Arizona.
Daughter of Marie Curie, she was jointly awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with her French husband, Frédéric Juliot, for their synthesis of new radioactive elements.
Frances Arnold (1959):
An American biochemist, she received the Chemistry Prize in 2018 jointly with the American George Smith and the British Gregory Winter for their research in the field of proteins.
An Israeli woman won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2009 with the American Thomas Steitz and Venky Ramakrishnan, an American and British Indian.
They received the award for their pioneering studies of the structure and function of the ribosome.
Barbara McClintock: Solo Nobel Peace Prize in Medicine
Barbara McClintock (March 16, 1902 - September 3, 1992); An American cell geneticist, she received her Ph.D. in botany from Cornell University in New York in 1927. She is the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine on her own, and she still holds this title to this day.
She set out to study chromosomes and their change during the process of cloning in maize, to win the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1983, as a result of her discoveries regarding certain sequences of DNA that can change their location within the gene.
McClintock was elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1959, and received the Kimber Prize in Genetics in 1967, as granted by the late American president; Richard Nixon, the National Medal of Science in 1970, as she was the first woman to receive this award, as well as receiving an award from Columbia University for her research in the "evolution of genetic information."
She is the Pakistani girl who won the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize at the age of 17 for her struggle against the oppression of children and adolescents, making the history of the Nobel Prizes as the youngest person to receive them.
She is the Kenyan activist and the first woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize from the African continent in 2004, for her contributions to sustainable development, democracy and peace. in Nigeria. Read also: 10 most expensive cat breeds in the world
Maria Mayer: Nobel Peace Prize in Physics
Maria Goeppert Mayer (28 June 1906 - 20 February 1972); An American scientist specializing in theoretical physicists, born in Germany, joined the German University of Göttingen in 1924, where she studied mathematics. After graduating, she continued her studies in physics, obtaining a doctorate in 1930; For her thesis on the theory of "possible two-photon absorption by atoms", Mayer won the 1963 Nobel Prize, jointly with the German; Hans Jensen, an American of Hungarian descent; Eugene Winger, for their discoveries of atomic physics.
Mayer has published many papers in the fields of atomic and chemical physics, where her work forms the theoretical basis for many discoveries in laser physics; Such as laser isotope separation, and molecular orbital computation.
Selma Lagerlöf: First winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in Literature
Selma Lagrove (20 November 1858 - 16 March 1940); Swedish novelist and writer, born in Värmland; On the Swedish-Norwegian border, she is the first writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, which she received in 1909, before she was chosen to be a member of the Swedish Academy that awards the Nobel Prizes in 1914.
Lagrove began her life as a teacher in a school in the town of Landskrona, where she worked for 10 years, Until she decided to stop teaching and devote herself to literature, and published her first novel, "The Epic of Gusta Berling", which heralded the Romantic Renaissance in Swedish literature, and then traveled in 1895 to Jerusalem and resided there, and upon her return she published a novel bearing the name "Jerusalem", and she also published several other novels. Of which; "Niels Holgersson's Wonderful Journey Through Sweden" in 1907, "Invisible Links" in 1894, and others.
Marie Curie: Two prizes in Physics and Chemistry
Marie Skłodowska-Curie (November 7, 1867 - July 4, 1934), born in Warsaw, Poland, is the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize, and she is the only one to have won two prizes in two different fields; where she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with her husband; French physicist Pierre Curie, second prize in chemistry
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